Recent Changes

Monday, November 28

  1. page Topic11 edited ... In order to effectively teach students, professors take on a variety of roles. They must desig…
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    In order to effectively teach students, professors take on a variety of roles. They must design the course, create course materials, and grade students on their work. Aside from that, professors must be actively engaging. They motivate students to challenge themselves, encourage teamwork, and help students to process information by presenting it in a variety of ways. Professors also have commitments outside the classroom, such as publishing papers, serving on committees, and promoting both their courses and the school.
    How do we measure education in the classroom?
    Traditional{metric-cartoon.jpg} Traditional measures of
    What do we measure in SDR2016?
    Feedback from each class session
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    Ratio between number of words the teacher speaks to the number of words students speak can help show student engagement
    An important point brought up in this discussion was that measures often become how we teach. However, we should look at how to teach rather than just to measure what we are teaching.
    {png;base644bf2018aecae8d01.png}
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    10:21 pm
  2. 10:20 pm
  3. page Topic11 edited ... Speakers and those invited to lead the course, their experience level and ability to teach St…
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    Speakers and those invited to lead the course, their experience level and ability to teach
    Students' knowledge through Homework assignments
    SometimesFeedback about the textbook, school, and trajectory of students
    For Andreas, the most important unit of analysis is the bits/time, meaning how much he has changed a student's way of thinking per time unit. Measuring this can be challenging.
    Keep in mind what tangible changes are made as a result of these metric. Sometimes
    the lines
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    about students. What can we do with that raw data?
    For a complete list of ideas from this discussion, please see this document.
    Selected student ideas discussed in class:
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    Metrics for measuring teachers do not always accurately represent effectiveness at teaching, but rather perception of teacher
    Promoting real knowledge over memorization in examinations
    Measuring how spread out students ideas are, like entropy measurements, to balance between one person's domination and many students inputting random information
    Ratio between number of words the teacher speaks to the number of words students speak can help show student engagement
    An important point brought up in this discussion was that measures often become how we teach. However, we should look at how to teach rather than just to measure what we are teaching.

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    10:11 pm

Friday, November 25

  1. user_add rohanpai rohanpai joined sdr2016
    10:55 pm
  2. page Topic08 edited ... Transcript: sdr2016topic08.docx Audio: sdr2016topic08.mp3 Contributors: Savanah Frisk &…
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    Transcript: sdr2016topic08.docx
    Audio: sdr2016topic08.mp3
    Contributors: Savanah Frisk &Frisk, Zhitong QiuQiu, & Lukas Schwab
    Topic 8: Predicting the Present
    Introduction
    ...
    There are some drawbacks for the social sciences as we swing towards a world where companies hold all the data. This was clear in the presentations today as most of the analysis done was only performed with ease due to the use of Google’s internal API, something non-Google employees do not have access to. This raises questions for the field of social science as a whole, if the data is owned and controlled by tech companies is it really open to the scientific community to explore, to the degree necessary for useful insights?
    Another implication in the upswing of data for social science is the mantra “Correlation does not equal causation”. The tools Google provides do offer quick and easy comparisons, which might be a great first step in the scientific process, however, a worry is that people will stop with a Google Trend comparison and present that information as fact without conducting further research. There is still much work to be done to make sure data is accessible, useful, and informative. However, the partnership between data and social science is exciting and will likely lead to many new ways to understand the past and present.
    Data and critical theory
    Vast swaths of critical theory inherit their foundational underpinnings from the work of Michel Foucault. Foucault's work on power was characterized by his focus on the various methods by which power is exercised: one of his major conclusions was the definition of le savoir-pouvoir ("power-knowledge") on the observation that power relies on knowledge for its exercise (how is it most effectively exercised, and over whom?) and that it produces knowledge through its exercise (e.g. via population censuses which require power to enforce but generate specific insights about governed groups).
    A frequent analogy in his work was that of the panopticon, introduced in Chapter 9 ("Panopticism") of Discipline and Punish. The panopticon was a theoretical model of a perfect prison by Jeremy Bentham in the late 19th century. Built to emphasize the unwavering gaze of prison guards over prisoners (rather than isolate and punish prisoners, as in a dungeon model), Foucault suggests that the panopticon is the archetype for disciplinary power in the modern era.
    {Panopticon.jpg}
    What does any of this have to do with social data?
    Foucault died well before the development of modern data science, but now there are critical theorists updating his work for modern dynamics. With the rise of huge data collection projects like the NSA and the persistent development of technologies to make sense of vast, pre-aggregated data sets on digital identities, the notion of the "gaze" ("regard") can be abstracted away from the literal act of looking. Now knowledge is generated and power exercised without any in-person interaction between the prisoner and guard in the Panopticon; rather, Flyverbom suggests in "Disclosing and concealing: internet governance, information control and the management of visibility" that political subjects are known first and foremost through their digital doubles.
    What does this mean? It is already changing how law enforcement functions, for example. Counterterrorism task forces can watch energy bills to identify apartments that are likely hold-outs for terrorist cells, or DEA agents can use energy bills to find grow houses (or heat imaging). Suspicious search histories might constitute sufficient probable cause to further investigate an individual.
    Whether this constitutes a hopeful step towards more effective enforcement of national laws and norms or a treacherous move towards totalitarian surveillance is up to individual judgement. One thing is clear, though: big data is changing, at a very fundamental level, how we relate to governments in the modern era. If modernity ushered in an age of panoptic power, the right term for now might be "algorithmic."

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    8:30 pm
  3. file Panopticon.jpg uploaded
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  4. page Topic15 edited ... IV. ACLU Successes and Failures In regards to the security of civil liberties within our tech…
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    IV. ACLU Successes and Failures
    In regards to the security of civil liberties within our technology-dominated society, Nicole’s division within the ACLU has had some notable victories as well defeats.
    {http://media2.govtech.com/images/770*1000/17471462035_4b3ff87149_k.jpg} {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/21AdoWsTlBbOanHxVfoKnDyBq59opxG6JRPS3bvFxmzq2xstMRv10ehkb5Pk8j2eEscCr_CRd8NcvuM4d42R8oWsdwQWpDAYmTyTQ18tRB4txKdoBMVzjbekVYEJ3v88JH84UaKK} Right to Know Act.jpg {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/hKn_nJrb-rs1LSTI-T9z6Z5TjdRHhT7LWEunggDdH_A0elGGs5Bic2lG2WYBJIwKlau2yh4-U4mMx3_CR6YQQcYXUNRKzceL4_CCoHGpYRk5ljfo7ty_XyrpvzHnK2L7L98OvrQW} edward-snowden-with-quote-on-nsa.jpg {https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Moroccans-and-the-right-to-have-access-to-information.jpg}
    The Right to Know Act - The ACLU pushed for this legislation that would give customers the right to know what information was collected about them and how that information was shared with third parties. Despite pressure from consumer groups, who believed the bill was not enough and wanted more powers in the hands of customers, this bill met vast opposition. Every single industry group and company lined up against them because they did not want such transparency. To them, the bill far exceeded limits. As a result, the bill was stopped by the first committee and the ACLU was unsuccessful.
    The ACLU also attempted to sue the NSA for spying, and the case goes up to the Supreme Court. However, because they could not prove that individuals were being spied on (because of secrecy), the Supreme Court rejected their case. A few days later, Snowden released his first document showing that Verizon customers were being spied on. As a result of this, the ACLU was able to move the litigation forward
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    7:38 pm
  5. 7:35 pm
  6. page Topic15 edited ... OVERVIEW {https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/1816098970/nicky.png} {https://upload.wikimed…
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    OVERVIEW
    {https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/1816098970/nicky.png} {https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e0/David_H._Holtzman_image.jpg}
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    system name, which atand essentially had the time wascontrol of the most
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    in the world.world at the time. During the
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    ACLU, and canmust be taken
    I.ACLU {https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/NR6ScMTMaNHbSFUDwt_ct12-bupW_AiO7RGwvpLMQ2FLjQunQQ6GsB7ER2TXKKRqNrCirxAuCupjQvYAdRSWQqMYPoVPU-iV0wDGy7rSvkDBI3V_6K9RDuv5Sk-EkrPbcr3dUMoO} American_Civil_Liberties_Union_logo.png
    ACLU, short for American Civil Liberties Union, is a non-partisan and non-profit organization founded in 1920 in order to "defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." The union has local affiliates in all 50 States as well as Puerto Rico, making it a large-scale organization with around 500,000 members. Originally founded for the purpose of protection of freedom of speech, the ACLU’s focus has expanded to protection of many other rights, most notably, the currently controversial right to privacy. Nicole Ozer, who is the Technology and Policy Director of the Northern California ACLU branch, leads a division which fights for the preservation of civil liberties in the society which is heavily shaped by technology. Amongst these liberties, the most notable ones are the right to privacy and right to transparency.
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    to Privacy {http://www.stellarinfo.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/encryption-mac.jpg}{http://www.stellarinfo.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/encryption-mac.jpg}
    According to
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    has become moredifficult.more difficult. Nonetheless, Nicole
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    statement in which he suggested
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    it, is basically obsolete"basically obsolete" in regards
    III.Right to Transparency
    Another rather controversial right, right to transparency, has been a major focus of ACLU within the past couple of years. It is a rather crucial component of consumer privacy, as the knowledge of what is happening is essential for the implementation of proper actions on behalf of the consumers and those whose rights have been violated. The lack of transparency creates a lack of pressure on the government and corporations to abide the constitutional law, thus allowing them to neglect and ignore whichever civil liberties stand in the way of their agenda. Although it is without a doubt necessary, obtaining transparency is not an easy task, as it puts a lot at stake for both sides. Furthermore, Nicole has stated that the secretive nature of the Obama Administration has made it nearly impossible to obtain any sort of transparency within the government and corporate entities, even through the use of Freedom of Information Act requests.
    IV. ACLU Successes and Failures
    In regards to the security of civil liberties within our technology-dominated society, Nicole’s division within the ACLU has had some notable victories as well defeats.
    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 width="190" height="147" caption="Image result for california electronics communications act"]] {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/21AdoWsTlBbOanHxVfoKnDyBq59opxG6JRPS3bvFxmzq2xstMRv10ehkb5Pk8j2eEscCr_CRd8NcvuM4d42R8oWsdwQWpDAYmTyTQ18tRB4txKdoBMVzjbekVYEJ3v88JH84UaKK}{http://media2.govtech.com/images/770*1000/17471462035_4b3ff87149_k.jpg} {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/21AdoWsTlBbOanHxVfoKnDyBq59opxG6JRPS3bvFxmzq2xstMRv10ehkb5Pk8j2eEscCr_CRd8NcvuM4d42R8oWsdwQWpDAYmTyTQ18tRB4txKdoBMVzjbekVYEJ3v88JH84UaKK} Right to
    The Right to Know Act - The ACLU pushed for this legislation that would give customers the right to know what information was collected about them and how that information was shared with third parties. Despite pressure from consumer groups, who believed the bill was not enough and wanted more powers in the hands of customers, this bill met vast opposition. Every single industry group and company lined up against them because they did not want such transparency. To them, the bill far exceeded limits. As a result, the bill was stopped by the first committee and the ACLU was unsuccessful.
    The ACLU also attempted to sue the NSA for spying, and the case goes up to the Supreme Court. However, because they could not prove that individuals were being spied on (because of secrecy), the Supreme Court rejected their case. A few days later, Snowden released his first document showing that Verizon customers were being spied on. As a result of this, the ACLU was able to move the litigation forward
    ...
    {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/OnwGyePkJdVzbNqZVLdDbA5mZCijVT8UFPrQJn0No9_eNMxlPCX57ud2T0ktpRHks99IgHwc0S1KdkGks_lnpN_jCvHTbyHaerFWF-e4ug8Rtfrd0uVQuZhFcc-LNpN1gGx5SI10} geofeedialogo.jpg
    V. How Surveillance Has Changed Since Edward Snowden
    [[image:data:image/jpeg;base64,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 width="302" height="167" align="center" caption="Image result for snowden"]]{https://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Cnt4_Fr53-1.jpg}
    The initial public backlash over Edward Snowden’s revelations about PRISM would lead many to assume there would be massive legislation and new regulations to curb government surveillance. However, in actuality, the opposite has occurred. Thanks to Edward Snowden’s leaks, there exists new flexibility with the amount of information the various intelligence agencies can obtain, particularly the NSA, and how that information is shared across the community. Since there is now a degree of transparency, both government officials that shape the laws (Democrats and Republicans) and companies that control the data see the importance of the NSA and other intelligence agencies’ roles.
    First, let’s say what Edward Snowden really revealed. He revealed that PRISM collects phone data on less than 30 percent of Americans mentioned by an article written by the Huffington Post by Stephen Braun in 2014. In response, the USA Freedom Act was passed that ended the PRISM program. However, the USA Freedom Act requires telecommunications companies to hold onto their data, which decreases costs since the NSA does not need to maintain their own databases, and access to intelligence agencies provided there is “reasonable suspicion” of the number being related to international terrorism or national security. In this article written by Lee Ferran of ABC in 2016, because the definition of “reasonable suspicion” is so vague, it virtually allows the NSA to obtain upwards to 100 percent of phone data. Consequently, this has an also greater impact on the protocols intelligence professionals must follow.
    ...
    foreigners’ information.
    So, what does this all mean to the average person? It means that despite the rhetoric around the public backlash to surveillance programs, little has been done to curb the intelligence communities’ activities. If anything, the leaks have revealed the relevance of such programs. This is why the Snowden leaks have actually both been detrimental (revealing how NSA operates) and positive (enhancing the capabilities agencies have not had before). Before people should be quick to backlash what these agencies do, it is important to consider what they do with the information compared to civilian companies. Civilian companies obtain, use, and sell the data for profits. In contrast, intelligence agencies use the data to predict, analyze, and protect the country from various threats that include terrorism and other foreign agencies. As such, the Edward Snowden leaks should bring into greater discussion the difference role intelligence companies and civilian ones (Facebook, etc) plays into the greater information age.
    VI. Conclusion
    (view changes)
    7:24 pm

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